Oxford Blockchain Development Stack

Let's take Internet as a comparaison to explain this. The protocol layer is the technology, the software with all the rules. For Internet it is the IP protocol. For DLT it is the Bitcoin or Ethereum protocol. The second layer is the networking layer. For Internet let's say it is the cloud. For DLT it's the thousands of devices and computers around the world running the software.

The last layer is the application layer. Users interact on the technology through this layer. For Internet it is or any other websites. Let's take an example for Blockchain: if a company wants to tokenize a real estate, they would create an Ethereum ERC20 Token based on the Ethereum protocol. This is the application which rely on a protocol technology and a network infrastructure.

We are on both layers with HARDAH One. Our Social Browser will be on the application layer and will use our own protocol Optima.

Blockchain image


  • Using the term Blockchain as a synonym of Distributed Ledger Technology is a mistake. Blockchain is a subcategory of DLT in fact. Ethereum, Bitcoin and Neo are using the well-known blockchain architecture linking one block after another to store data.

  • But there are other type of architectures than traditional blockchain to ensure decentralization. Hedera is one good example. They are not using a blockchain structure but a Hashgraph structure. Iota is using a DAG. Even Facebook's coin Libra is stricto sensu not a Blockchain. Libra has no blocks but a ledger state technology.

  • We will use our own DLT protocol called Optima to ensure decentralization and to fight fake news on the Project HARDAH One. Optima will have a different decentralized structure than a Blockchain one.
Why using Blockchain and DLT on our Social Browser ?


By using Blockchain and DLT, we want to decentralize our control over the algorithms and the data on our App.


We are using Blockchain, DLT and Deep learning to trace flagged Fake News, reduce their spread and punish their creators.


Users creating sourced news, reading and sharing quality content will be rewarded by earning Optima coins.

Optima is based on five pillars

Democratize DLT

We want to democratize DLT and Blockchain with our Social Browser


For DLT to being used on our Social Networking use case, we need a scalable, fast, eco-friendly protocol.

Economic Credibility

We develop a stable and credible token economics based on macroeconomics.

Regulatory Compliance

We are one of the most advance company on the compliance level. We work with several swiss private banks.

Swiss Quality

We are based legally and physically in Geneva. We promote swiss quality and excellency in each of our products.